Some archaic deities have Italic or Etruscan counterparts, as identified both by ancient sources and by modern scholars.
Dating at the upper larum
Isotope paleontology uses the isotopic composition of fossil remains of organisms to make inferences about the physical surroundings of growth of the organisms (especially temperature), and to obtain clues about life history and modes of growth.
In calcareous fossils, oxygen isotopes are mainly used in the former, and carbon isotopes in the latter.
Many of the Romans' own gods remain obscure, known only by name and function, through inscriptions and texts that are often fragmentary.
This is particularly of those gods belonging to the archaic religion of the Romans dating back to the era of kings, the so-called "religion of Numa," which was perpetuated or revived over the centuries.
Saturn, for instance, can be said to have another origin here, and so too Diana." But the importance of the Sabines in the early cultural formation of Rome is evidenced, for instance, by the bride abduction of the Sabine women by Romulus's men, and in the Sabine ethnicity of Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, to whom are attributed many of Rome's religious and legal institutions.
Even in invocations, which generally required precise naming, the Romans sometimes spoke of gods as groups or collectives rather than naming them as individuals.
Varro grouped the gods broadly into three divisions of heaven, earth, and underworld: More common is a dualistic contrast between superi and inferi.
The di indigetes were thought by Georg Wissowa to be Rome's indigenous deities, in contrast to the di novensides or novensiles, "newcomer gods".
This extension of an Imperial honorific to major and minor deities of Rome and her provinces is considered a ground-level feature of Imperial cult.