Sardar Daud made friendly gestures to Pakistan in the late 1970s, but his overtures were cut short by a Communist coup in 1978.The new regime in Kabul returned to the support—at least rhetorical—for Pashtun and Baluch nationalists in Pakistan.
In Afghanistan, the Shia community makes up nineteen percent of the population or 6.2 million people, while in Pakistan, it accounts for twenty percent of the population or 34.6 million people.
Ever since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, large numbers of Afghans have sought refuge in Pakistan.
Terrain | Demographics | History | Political Interests | Economic Interests Pakistan and Afghanistan share an immense border stretching 1510 miles (2430 km) along the southern and eastern edges of Afghanistan.
The Afghan provinces of Badakhshan, Nurestan, Konar, Nangarhar, Paktiya, Khost, Paktika, Zabul, Kandahar, Helmand, and Nimruz are all adjacent to the Pakistani border.
Furthermore, Pakistan had been a partner of the United States in the Cold War since the 1950s, and this cooperation had provoked numerous Soviet threats over the years.
The new leader of Pakistan, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who seized power in a 1977 military coup, was a fervent anti-communist and Islamist.
The majority of people in Pakistan (75 percent) and Afghanistan (80 percent) are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school.
However, both countries have sizeable Shia minorities.
Major border crossings between the two countries are in Torkham, between Peshawar and Jalalabad and in Spinboldak between Kandahar and Quetta.