They focused on charity, conflict resolution, and assisting members in relations with the non-Chinese world.They often had more power than any other immigrant Chinese organization, including regional, clan, and family name groupings, as well as the supposedly dominant Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association In 2009 the editors first visited Clinton in British Columbia, located on the Cariboo trail that in the 1860s-1890s led from the southern Fraser River to the rich gold fields around Barkerville and Quesnel Forks.
The Chinese imperial government did not take such matters lightly.
The presence of a Tianyun date, even if used in private, meant death for the writer plus, in all probability, his entire family.
Xie Bangheng, a fisherman and incognito Ming loyalist who recovered the bodies of Guo Xiuying and Zheng’s sister.
Xie then built the “Sisters-in-Law” Temple on the riverside.
Most were much more than mere lairs of Mafia-style gangsters.
Many were law-abiding, with a middle-class membership.
He was honored as one of the five “benevolent heroes” of the Society.
, the Red Boy was the son of the Bull Demon-King and Princess Iron Fan.
Those who did use it were members of secret societies affiliated with the Tiandihui 天地会: in North America, the Hongmen 洪门 or Chee Kung Tong 致公堂.