There was also a Jewish influx into the new capital, Tashkent.
During World War II, Jews from European Russia were evacuated to Uzbekistan, and many remained there.
The three major Jewish centers are Tashkent (13,000), Samarkand (3,000), and Bukhara (2,000).
The Jews of Uzbekistan can be divided into two categories: the Ashkenazim who came to the region from other parts of the Soviet Union during Soviet rule and sometimes earlier, and the indigenous Bukharan community, which has its own Tajik-Jewish dialect, and which traces its roots back many centuries.
Bukharans account for almost the entire community in Samarkand.
Nearly all the Ashkenazim live in the capital, Tashkent, as do some 2,000 Bukharan Jews.
Several Jewish schools are to be found, among them three day schools, one in Bukhara, one in Samarkand and another in Tashkent.
Both Tashkent and Bukhara have Jewish cultural centers.Embassy 16A Lachuti Street, 5th Floor 545 Tashkent Tel.7 3712 567 823, Fax 7 3712 543 907 With the passing of President Islam Karimov, an isolationist who strove to stay on good terms with Russia and the United States, relatively affluent Uzbekistanis, including the country’s 13,000 remaining Jews, look to an uncertain future.There Jews continue to follow a traditional way of life.Bukharan Jewry is an ancient community that claims descent from 5th-century exiles from Persia.They need to produce more electricity during the winter season; whereas downstream countries need water for irrigation in the summer season.