Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas.
The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor, founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421.
He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656.
Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance.
Its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.
It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections.
This article is about the city of Manchester in England.
For the larger conurbation, see Greater Manchester Built-up Area. state of New Hampshire, see Manchester, New Hampshire. Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell.
A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes.
One such gathering ended with the Peterloo Massacre of 16 August 1819.
The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.