► Coalescence analysis supported post-divergence unidirectional introgression.
► Ecologically driven forces likely to have played a significant role in the speciation.
While obtaining unambiguous information on capital costs is challenging, the technical specifications of the commercial i MBR (immersed membrane bioreactor) membrane module products allow an assessment of both the module footprint, and thus their interchangeability, and the membrane aeration demand, which provides the greatest contribution to the running costs.
It is envisaged that there exists a range of optimum values of the i MBR module dimensions that are likely to relate to key design operation and maintenance parameters such as specific aeration demand of the membrane and aeration protocol, gross flux, physical and chemical cleaning protocols, sludge retention time, and pre-treatment.
This opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings.
Later in his career, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors.
An estimate of divergence time was less than 0.5 Ma with an upper confidence limit of within 1 Ma.
Recent speciation of highly mobile species in the marine environment is of great interest, as it suggests that speciation may have occurred in the absence of long-term physical barriers to gene flow.
He donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which was established in 2000.
Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals, excluding and ranking against those with wealth that is not able to be completely ascertained.
7 In 1975, Gates and Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company.