The Kingdom of Nri was a West African medieval state in the present-day southeastern Nigeria and a subgroup of the Igbo people.
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West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West Africa has been defined as including 18 countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, the island nation of Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, the island of Saint Helena, Senegal, Sierra Leone, São Tomé and Príncipe and Togo.
The domestication of the camel allowed the development of a trans-Saharan trade with cultures across the Sahara, including Carthage and the Berbers; major exports included gold, cotton cloth, metal ornaments, and leather goods, which were then exchanged for salt, horses, textiles, and other such materials. This was then succeeded by the Ghana Empire that first flourished between the 9th and 12th centuries, which later gave way to the Mali Empire.
Local leather, cloth, and gold also contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires. In current-day Mauritania, there exist archaeological sites in the towns of Tichit and Oualata that were initially constructed around 2000 B.
The Mali Empire continued to flourish for several centuries, most particularly under Sundiata's grandnephew Musa I, before a succession of weak rulers led to its collapse under Mossi, Tuareg and Songhai invaders.
In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Gao, in the Songhai Empire, under the leadership of Sonni Ali and Askia Mohammed.
In the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, and an inter-region trade began to appear.
The desertification of the Sahara and the climatic change of the coast cause trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen.
The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria,.
Established in the 15th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states.
Three great kingdoms were identified in Bilad al-Sudan by the ninth century. The Sosso Empire sought to fill the void, but was defeated (c.