A considerable amount of progress on the design and analysis of experiments occurred in the early 20th century, with contributions from statisticians such as Ronald Fisher (1890-1962), Jerzy Neyman (1894-1981), Oscar Kempthorne (1919-2000), Gertrude Mary Cox (1900-1978), and William Gemmell Cochran (1909-1980), among others.Experiments might be categorized according to a number of dimensions, depending upon professional norms and standards in different fields of study.If an experiment is carefully conducted, the results usually either support or disprove the hypothesis.
This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements.
Scientific controls are a part of the scientific method.
They are used to test theories and hypotheses about how physical processes work under particular conditions (e.g., whether a particular engineering process can produce a desired chemical compound).
Typically, experiments in these fields focus on replication of identical procedures in hopes of producing identical results in each replication. In medicine and the social sciences, the prevalence of experimental research varies widely across disciplines.
Confounding is commonly eliminated through scientific controls and/or, in randomized experiments, through random assignment.
In engineering and the physical sciences, experiments are a primary component of the scientific method.Ideally, all variables in an experiment are controlled (accounted for by the control measurements) and none are uncontrolled.In such an experiment, if all controls work as expected, it is possible to conclude that the experiment works as intended, and that results are due to the effect of the tested variable.tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g.tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles).An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.