Mobilization of permafrost carbon is expected to increase under future climate warming.
Permafrost is a distinct feature of the terrestrial Arctic and is vulnerable to climate warming.
Permafrost degrades in different ways, including deepening of a seasonally unfrozen surface and localized but rapid development of deep thaw features.
Small amounts of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (lattice defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red.
Diamond also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors).
The deposits formed due to a combination of aeolian, colluvial, nival, and alluvial deposition and simultaneous ground ice accumulation.
We found up to 130 gigatons organic carbon in Yedoma, parts of which are well-preserved and available for fast decomposition after thaw.
Special gemological techniques have been developed to distinguish natural diamonds, synthetic diamonds, and diamond simulants.
The word is from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας – adámas "unbreakable".
Diamonds are thought to have been first recognized and mined in India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could be found many centuries ago along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari.