The separation was a consequence of, and resulted in, feelings of some bitterness between the two nations.Hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims died in the riots that followed independence, as Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan and Hindus who lived in the newly created Pakistan streamed into India.Pakistan boasts the site of the famed Indus valley civilization (B. Pakistan's ethnic and cultural diversity has been formed through legacies of advancing Persians, Turks, Arabs, Huns, Greeks, and Mongols, most of whom practiced Islam.
There are much smaller Hindu, Christian and Zoroastrian minority communities.
Pakistan is not a secular state; the state religion is Islam, and religion enters many aspects of Pakistani political and social life.
Many Muslims who chose to remain in India have close family members who moved to Pakistan and some Hindus remained behind in Pakistan, ensuring an intertwined destiny for the two countries.
After the death of Jinnah, Pakistan was ruled by a series of army chiefs under what were called martial law regimes.
She led her father's political party, the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) to victory.
She then lost the 1990 general election, but is today head of Pakistan's government once again.
Because Jinnah feared political, social, and cultural subordination to the Hindu majority, he started a movement to establish a separate state based on Islam for the Indian Muslims.
This group felt that in order to be truly free, Indian Muslims needed their own homeland.
India and Pakistan have fought three wars over the years and have been involved in many other confrontations, particularly over the disputed Kashmir region that lies between the two countries and is today the scene of a protracted, three-way conflict among the Indians, Pakistanis, and Kashmiris, who are seeking independence from both India and Pakistan.